Brazil nut

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Brazil nut tree
Bertholletia excelsa compose.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Lecythidaceae
Subfamily: Lecythidoideae
Genus: Bertholletia
Bonpl.
Species:
B. excelsa
Binomial name
Bertholletia excelsa
Humb. & Bonpl.

The Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is a South American tree in the family Lecythidaceae, and it is also the name of the tree's commercially harvested edible seeds. It is one of the largest and longest-lived trees in the Amazon rainforest. The fruit and its nutshell – containing the edible Brazil nut – are relatively large, possibly weighing as much as 2 kg (4 lb 7 oz) in total weight. As food, Brazil nuts are notable for diverse content of micronutrients, especially a high amount of selenium. The wood of the Brazil nut tree is prized for its quality in carpentry, flooring, and heavy construction.[1]

Common names[edit]

Brazil nut seeds in shell
Depiction of the Brazil nut in Scientific American Supplement, No. 598, June 18, 1887

In various countries of South America, Brazil nuts are called castañas de Brasil or nuez de Brasil.[1] In Brazil, they are more commonly called "castanha-do-pará" (meaning "chestnuts from Pará"), with other names used in remote and/or small localities.[1]

In North America, as early as 1896, Brazil nuts were sometimes known by the slang term "nigger toes",[2][3][4] a vulgarity that gradually fell out of use as the racial slur became socially unacceptable.[5][6]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Brazil nut family, the Lecythidaceae, is in the order Ericales, as are other well-known plants such as blueberries, cranberries, sapote, gutta-percha, tea, phlox, and persimmons. The tree is the only species in the monotypic genus Bertholletia,[1] named after French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet.

Description[edit]

Tree branch

The Brazil nut is a large tree, reaching 50 m (160 ft) tall and with a trunk 1 to 2 m (3 ft 3 in to 6 ft 7 in) in diameter, making it among the largest of trees in the Amazon rainforest. It may live for 500 years or more, and can often reach a thousand years of age.[7] The stem is straight and commonly without branches for well over half the tree's height, with a large, emergent crown of long branches above the surrounding canopy of other trees.

The bark is grayish and smooth. The leaves are dry-season deciduous, alternate, simple, entire or crenate, oblong, 20–35 cm (8–14 in) long, and 10–15 cm (4–6 in) broad. The flowers are small, greenish-white, in panicles 5–10 cm (2–4 in) long; each flower has a two-parted, deciduous calyx, six unequal cream-colored petals, and numerous stamens united into a broad, hood-shaped mass.[citation needed]

Range[edit]

The Brazil nut is native to the Guianas, Venezuela, Brazil, eastern Colombia, eastern Peru, and eastern Bolivia. It occurs as scattered trees in large forests on the banks of the Amazon River, Rio Negro, Tapajós, and the Orinoco.

As a result, they can be found outside production areas, in the backyards of homes and near roads and streets in the Northern and Northeastern Brazil.[citation needed] The fruit is heavy and rigid; when the fruits fall, they pose a serious threat to vehicles and people passing under the tree.

Reproduction[edit]

A freshly cut Brazil nut fruit

Brazil nut trees produce fruit almost exclusively in pristine forests, as disturbed forests lack the large-bodied bees of the genera Bombus, Centris, Epicharis, Eulaema, and Xylocopa, which are the only ones capable of pollinating the tree's flowers, with different bee genera being the primary pollinators in different areas, and different times of year.[8][9][10] Brazil nuts have been harvested from plantations, but production is low and is currently not economically viable.[11][12][13]

The fruit takes 14 months to mature after pollination of the flowers. The fruit itself is a large capsule 10–15 cm (4–6 in) in diameter, resembling a coconut endocarp in size and weighing up to 2 kg (4 lb 7 oz). It has a hard, woody shell 8–12 mm (3812 in) thick, which contains eight to 24 wedge-shaped seeds 4–5 cm (1+58–2 in) long (the "Brazil nuts") packed like the segments of an orange, but not limited to one whorl of segments. Up to three whorls can be stacked onto each other, with the polar ends of the segments of the middle whorl nestling into the upper and lower whorls (see illustration above).

The capsule contains a small hole at one end, which enables large rodents like the agouti to gnaw it open.[14] They then eat some of the seeds inside while burying others for later use; some of these are able to germinate into new Brazil nut trees.[14] Most of the seeds are "planted" by the agoutis in caches during wet season,[14] and the young saplings may have to wait years, in a state of dormancy, for a tree to fall and sunlight to reach it, when it starts growing again. Capuchin monkeys have been reported to open Brazil nuts using a stone as an anvil.

Society and culture[edit]

In Brazil, cutting down a Brazil nut tree (typically with the intent of harvesting lumber and Brazil nuts) is illegal, unless done with previous authorization from the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources.[15][16]

Production[edit]

Brazil nut production – 2019
Country (tonnes)
 Brazil 32,905
 Bolivia 31,146
 Peru 6,205
World 70,256
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[17]

In 2019, global production of Brazil nuts (in shells) was 78,256 tonnes, most of which derive from wild harvests in tropical forests, especially the Amazon regions of Brazil and Bolivia which produced 91% of the world total (table).

Environmental effects of harvesting[edit]

Since most of the production for international trade is harvested in the wild,[18][19] the business arrangement has been advanced as a model for generating income from a tropical forest without destroying it.[18] The nuts are most often gathered by migrant workers known as castañeros (in Spanish) or castanheiros (in Portuguese).[18] Logging is a significant threat to the sustainability of the Brazil nut-harvesting industry.[18][19]

Analysis of tree ages in areas that are harvested shows that moderate and intense gathering takes so many seeds that not enough are left to replace older trees as they die.[19] Sites with light gathering activities had many young trees, while sites with intense gathering practices had nearly none.[20]

European Union import regulation[edit]

In 2003, the European Union imposed strict regulations on the import of Brazilian-harvested Brazil nuts in their shells, as the shells are considered to contain unsafe levels of aflatoxins, a potential cause of liver cancer.[21]

Nutrition and human consumption[edit]

Brazil nuts, dried, unblanched, shelled
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy2,743 kJ (656 kcal)
12.27 g
Starch0.25 g
Sugars2.33 g
Dietary fiber7.5 g
66.43 g
Saturated15.137 g
Monounsaturated24.548 g
Polyunsaturated20.577 g
14.32 g
Tryptophan0.141 g
Threonine0.362 g
Isoleucine0.516 g
Leucine1.155 g
Lysine0.492 g
Methionine1.008 g
Phenylalanine0.630 g
Tyrosine0.420 g
Valine0.756 g
Arginine2.148 g
Histidine0.386 g
Alanine0.577 g
Aspartic acid1.346 g
Glutamic acid3.147 g
Glycine0.718 g
Proline0.657 g
Serine0.683 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Thiamine (B1)
54%
0.617 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.035 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.295 mg
Vitamin B6
8%
0.101 mg
Folate (B9)
6%
22 μg
Vitamin C
1%
0.7 mg
Vitamin E
38%
5.73 mg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
16%
160 mg
Iron
19%
2.43 mg
Magnesium
106%
376 mg
Manganese
57%
1.2 mg
Phosphorus
104%
725 mg
Potassium
14%
659 mg
Sodium
0%
3 mg
Zinc
43%
4.06 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water3.48 g
Selenium1917 μg
Beta-Sitosterol64 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Brazil nuts after shell removal

Brazil nuts contain 14% protein, 12% carbohydrate, and 66% fat by weight; 85% of their calories come from fat, and a 100-gram (3+12-ounce) amount provides 2,740 kilojoules (656 kilocalories) of food energy.[22] The fat components are 23% saturated, 38% monounsaturated, and 32% polyunsaturated.[22][23] Due to their high polyunsaturated fat content, primarily omega-6 fatty acids, shelled Brazil nuts may quickly become rancid.

Nutritionally, Brazil nuts are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of dietary fiber (30% DV) and various vitamins and dietary minerals. A 100 g (3+12 oz) amount (75% of one cup) of Brazil nuts contains rich content of thiamin (54% DV), vitamin E (38% DV), magnesium (106% DV), phosphorus (104% DV), manganese (57% DV), and zinc (43% DV). Brazil nuts are perhaps the richest dietary source of selenium, with a 28 g (1 oz) serving of six nuts supplying 774% DV.[22] This is 10 times the adult U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance, more even than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, although the amount of selenium within batches of nuts varies greatly.[24] A 200 grams bag of Brazil nuts from the supermarket has a selenium content of around 20,000 micrograms. That is almost 300 times the amount that the German Nutrition Society (GNS) recommends for healthy adults (70 micrograms per day for men, 60 micrograms per day for women).[25] The most common signs of a chronical overdose are hair and nail loss or brittleness.[26]

The high selenium content is used as a biomarker in studies of selenium intake and deficiency.[27][28] Consumption of just one Brazil nut per day over 8 weeks was sufficient to restore selenium blood levels and increase HDL (good) cholesterol in obese women.[28]

The selenium which is contained in Brazil nuts comes in organic compounds, mainly in the form of selenomethionine.[29] The body confuses this form of selenium with the protein element methionine.[30] That means that it incorporates the organic compound uncontrollably into proteins that should contain sulfur.[31] A part of the selenium is regenerated later but does occur as a function of protein metabolism and not as needed.[31] Instead of having the positive effects, the regular consumption of Brazil nuts can have negative effects.

Phytochemicals[edit]

The shells of Brazil nuts contain high levels of aflatoxins, which are produced by molds,[32] and can cause liver damage, including possible cancer, if consumed.[21] Aflatoxin levels have been found in Brazil nuts during inspections that were far higher than the limits set by the EU.[33]

The nuts contain small amounts of radium, a radioactive element, with a kilogram of nuts containing an activity between 40 and 260 becquerels (1 and 7 nanocuries). This is about 1000 times higher than in several other common foods. According to Oak Ridge Associated Universities, elevated levels of radium in the soil does not directly cause the concentration of radium, but "the very extensive root system of the tree" can concentrate naturally occurring radioactive material, when present in the soil.[34] The material must still be present in the soil in order to concentrate in the trees.[35]

Brazil nuts also contain barium, a metal with a chemical behavior quite similar to radium,[36] which can have toxic effects, such as weakness, vomiting or diarrhea, after intentional or accidental ingestion.[37]

Uses[edit]

Oil[edit]

Brazil nut oil

Brazil nut oil contains 75% unsaturated fatty acids composed mainly of oleic and linoleic acids, as well as the phytosterol, beta-sitosterol,[38] and fat-soluble vitamin E.[39]

The following table presents the composition of fatty acids in Brazil nut essential oil:[22]

Palmitic acid 16–20%
Palmitoleic acid 0.5–1.2%
Stearic acid 9–13%
Oleic acid 36–45%
Linoleic acid 33–38%
Saturated fats 25%
Unsaturated fats 75%

Wood[edit]

A Brazil nut tree (Castanheira)

The lumber from Brazil nut trees (not to be confused with Brazilwood) is of excellent quality, having diverse uses from flooring to heavy construction.[1] Logging the trees is prohibited by law in all three producing countries (Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru). Illegal extraction of timber and land clearances present continuing threats.[40]

Other uses[edit]

A carved Brazil nut fruit

Brazil nut oil is used as a lubricant in clocks, in the manufacturing of paint, and in the cosmetics industry.[41] Because of its hardness, the Brazil nutshell is often pulverized and used as an abrasive to polish materials such as metals and ceramics, in the same way jeweler's rouge is used.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut)". CABI. November 19, 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  2. ^ Lyons, A. B. (2015) Plant Names, Scientific and Popular, 2nd edition. Arkose Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-1345211849
  3. ^ Young, W. J. (1911). "The Brazil Nut". Botanical Gazette. 52 (3): 226–231. doi:10.1086/330613.
  4. ^ ""Nigger", noun and adjective". Oxford English Dictionary. 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  5. ^ Essig, Laurie (July 12, 2016). "White Like Me, Nice Like Me". Psychology Today. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  6. ^ Brunvand, J. H. (1972). "The Study of Contemporary Folklore: Jokes". Fabula. 13 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1515/fabl.1972.13.1.1. S2CID 162318582.
  7. ^ Taitson, Bruno (January 18, 2007). "Harvesting nuts, improving lives in Brazil". World Wildlife Fund. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  8. ^ Nelson, B. W.; Absy, M. L.; Barbosa, E. M.; Prance, G. T. (1985). "Observations on flower visitors to Bertholletia excelsa H. B. K. and Couratari tenuicarpa A. C. Sm.(Lecythidaceae)". Acta Amazonica. 15 (1): 225–234. doi:10.1590/1809-43921985155234. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
  9. ^ Moritz, A. (1984). Estudos biológicos da floração e da frutificação da castanha-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa HBK) [Biological studies of flowering and fruiting of Brazil nuts (Bertholleira excelsa HKB)] (in Portuguese). 29. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
  10. ^ Cavalcante, M. C.; Oliveira, F. F.; Maués, M. M.; Freitas, B. M. (October 27, 2017). "Pollination Requirements and the Foraging Behavior of Potential Pollinators of Cultivated Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) Trees in Central Amazon Rainforest". Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 2012: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2012/978019.
  11. ^ Mori, Scott A. "The Brazil Nut Industry – Past, Present, and Future". The New York Botanical Garden. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  12. ^ Hennessey, Tim (March 2, 2001). "The Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa)". Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  13. ^ Ortiz, Enrique G. "The Brazil Nut Tree: More than just nuts". Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  14. ^ a b c Haugaasen, Joanne M. Tuck; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Peres, Carlos A.; Gribel, Rogerio; Wegge, Per (March 30, 2010). "Seed dispersal of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) by scatter-hoarding rodents in a central Amazonian forest". Journal of Tropical Ecology. 26 (3): 251–262. doi:10.1017/s0266467410000027. S2CID 84855812.
  15. ^ Moncrieff, Virginia M. (September 21, 2015). "A little logging may go a long way". Forest News. Center for International Forestry Research. Retrieved July 8, 2020 – via CIFOR.org.
  16. ^ Wadt, Lucia Helena de Oliveira; de Souza, Joana Maria Leite. "Árvore do Conhecimento – Castanha-do-Brasil" [Tree of Knowledge – Brazil nut]. Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (in Portuguese).
  17. ^ "Brazil nut production in 2019; Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2019. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  18. ^ a b c d Evans, Kate (November 7, 2013). "Harvesting both timber and Brazil nuts in Peru's Amazon forests: Can they coexist?". Forests News. Center for International Forestry Research. Retrieved May 2, 2019 – via CIFOR.org.
  19. ^ a b c Kivner, Mark (May 11, 2010). "Intensive harvests 'threaten Brazil nut tree future'". BBC News: Science and Environment. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  20. ^ Silvertown, J. (2004). "Sustainability in a nutshell". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 19 (6): 276–278. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2004.03.022. PMID 16701269.
  21. ^ a b "Commission Decision of July 4, 2003 imposing special conditions on the import of Brazil nuts in shell originating in or consigned from Brazil". Official Journal of the European Union. European Union. July 5, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2012 – via europa.eu.
  22. ^ a b c d "Nutrition facts for Brazil nuts, dried, unblanched, 100 g serving". Self NutritionData. Conde Nast; US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database, version SR-21. 2014. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  23. ^ "Nuts, Brazil nuts, dried, unblanched per 100 grams". National Nutrient Database, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
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  25. ^ "Ausgewählte Fragen und Antworten zu Selen". www.dge.de (in German). Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  26. ^ "Office of Dietary Supplements – Selenium". ods.od.nih.gov. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  27. ^ Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Hulshof, Paul J. M.; Estruel-Amades, Sheila; Osté, Maryse C. J.; Lankinen, Maria; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; de Goede, Janette; Ulaszewska, Marynka; Mattivi, Fulvio; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Schwab, Ursula; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina (March 19, 2019). "Biomarkers of food intake for nuts and vegetable oils: an extensive literature search". Genes and Nutrition. 14 (1): 7. doi:10.1186/s12263-019-0628-8. PMC 6423890. PMID 30923582.
  28. ^ a b Souza, R. G. M.; Gomes, A. C.; Naves, M. M. V.; Mota, J. F. (April 16, 2015). "Nuts and legume seeds for cardiovascular risk reduction: scientific evidence and mechanisms of action". Nutrition Reviews. 73 (6): 335–347. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuu008. PMID 26011909.
  29. ^ "Selen und Herz-Kreislauf-Krankheiten". www.dge.de (in German). Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  30. ^ Lazard, Myriam; Dauplais, Marc; Blanquet, Sylvain; Plateau, Pierre (April 24, 2015). "Trans-sulfuration Pathway Seleno-amino Acids Are Mediators of Selenomethionine Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (17): 10741–10750. doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.640375. ISSN 0021-9258. PMC 4409240. PMID 25745108.
  31. ^ a b Plateau, Pierre; Saveanu, Cosmin; Lestini, Roxane; Dauplais, Marc; Decourty, Laurence; Jacquier, Alain; Blanquet, Sylvain; Lazard, Myriam (March 17, 2017). "Exposure to selenomethionine causes selenocysteine misincorporation and protein aggregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 44761. Bibcode:2017NatSR...744761P. doi:10.1038/srep44761. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5355996. PMID 28303947.
  32. ^ "Aflatoxins in food | EFSA". www.efsa.europa.eu. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  33. ^ "Research improves the control of Brazil nut contamination by mycotoxins". AGÊNCIA FAPESP. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  34. ^ "Brazil Nuts". Oak Ridge Associated Universities. January 20, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  35. ^ "BBC Bang Goes the Theory demonstrates that NOT all Brazil nuts are radioactive". January 4, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  36. ^ "Brazil Nuts". Museum of Radiation and Radioactivity. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  37. ^ "Biomonitoring Summary". www.cdc.gov. September 3, 2021. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  38. ^ Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim (2013). "Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types". International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 83 (5): 263–270. doi:10.1024/0300-9831/a000168. PMID 25305221.
  39. ^ Ryan, E.; Galvin, K.; O'Connor, T. P.; Maguire, A. R.; O'Brien, N. M. (2006). "Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 57 (3–4): 219–228. doi:10.1080/09637480600768077. PMID 17127473. S2CID 22030871.
  40. ^ "Greenpeace Activists Trapped by Loggers in Amazon". Greenpeace. October 18, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  41. ^ K, Lim T. (2012). Edible Medicinal And Non Medicinal Plants: Volume 3, Fruits. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-94-007-2534-8.